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Writing and Style Guide: How to Cite


Top Reasons for Citing Sources

  • Support your own conclusions by demonstrating how your research builds on the work of others
  • Avoid plagarism by crediting the ideas of others
  • Enable others to identify and locate the sources you used for their own research

The Art of Citation

Learn more about the "Art of Citation."

Writing Center Director Peter Susag explores the fine points and nuances of citing in his February 26, 2015 Tech Talk.

A text summary appears in the Download Guides box in the right column.

Citing Special Sources

Biblical, Classical & Medieval Sources

Refer to this document for help in referencing the text of the Bible, notes or introductions from study bibles, and a variety of ancient sources.  For papers and theses that make extensive use of these sources, the SBL Handbook of Style (on reserve at the library circulation desk) is also recommended.

Luther & Lutheran Sources

These documents present the desired form of abbreviation and footnote/bibliography examples to use when citing material in the standard editions of Luther’s works and the Lutheran confessions.

A brief bibliographical description is sufficient for the List of Abbreviations, but should include enough information to make clear the source to which the abbreviation refers. Full bibliographic entries for selected editions of Luther's works are given in the Footnote & Bibliography Examples guide.

Chicago/Turabian Style Guide

The default citation format at Luther Seminary is the Chicago notes-bibliography citation style commonly used in the humanities. Examples are shown for the most frequently used source citations and digital formats.

Students are advised to consult the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition or Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 8th edition for a full range of citation examples.

Print copies are available in the library or consult the online version: Chicago Manual of Style Online

Guide to Copyright & Fair Use

United States Copyright Law

Copyright = "the right to reproduce or to authorize others to reproduce the work." 

Learn more about U.S. copyright law:

Fair Use

Section 107 (of US copyright law) also sets out four factors to be considered in determining whether or not a particular use is fair.

  1. The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes
  2. The nature of the copyrighted work
  3. The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole
  4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for, or value of, the copyrighted work


Code of Best Practices for Academic and Research Libraries

Download this pamphlet to learn more about copyright, fair use, and best practices when using (quoting, sharing...)  materials (books, articles, websites, etc.) written by other people.